Microbial Diversity of Marine and Terrestrial Thermal Springs

Table 4: Page 1 of 6
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Table 4: The Order Clostridiales

Species Location Morphology
Temperature
(optimum, °C)
pH Range
(Optimum)
Metabolism Electron Donor Electron Acceptor Comments Ref.
Clostridium fervidus Hot spring, New Zealand Rods; 2-3 micrometers long; motile; spherical spores
37-80
(68)
5.5-9
(7-7.5)
O Yeast extract; tryptone; pyruvate; glucose; xylan; starch; maltose Organics Main fermentation end products are acetate, H2, CO2
Patel et al. (1987)
Desulfotomaculum alkaliphilum Mixed cow/pig manure, Moscow region, Russia Curved, oval-ended rods; 3-3.5 micrometers long; endospores; non-motile
25-58
(50-55)
8-9.15
(8.6-8.7)
M H2; acetate; formate; ethanol; pyruvate SO4(2-); SO3(2-); S2O3(2-) Carbonate required for growth Pikuta et al. (2000)
Desulfotomaculum nigrificans Rods; 3-6 micrometers; motile; endospores
40-60
(55)
nd
(7.3)
M H2 + acetate; pyruvate; lactate; ethanol SO4(2-); SO3(2-); S2O3(2-) Originally described as Clostridium nigrificans Starkey et al. (1937)
Desulfotomaculum putei 2.7km below surface; Taylorsville, Triassic Basin, Virginia Rods; 2-5 micrometers; motile; oval; paracentral spores
40-60
(64)
6-7.9
(7-7.9)
M H2; acetate; formate; ethanol; methanol; lactate; glucose SO4(2-); SO3(2-); S2O3(2-) No electron acceptor required when grown on glucose Liu et al. (1997)
Desulfotomaculum luciae 2.7km below surface; Taylorsville, Triassic Basin, Virginia Rods; 1-3 micrometers; motile; spherical; central endospores
40-60
(nd)
6.3-7.8
(nd)
M H2; acetate; formate; ethanol; lactate SO4(2-); S2O3(2-) No electron acceptor required when grown on pyruvate or lactate Liu et al. (1997)
Desulfotomaculum thermocisternum Oil reservoir, 2.6km below sea floor, North Sea Straight rods, single or in pairs; 2-5.2 micrometers; motile; central endospores
41-75
(62)
6.2-8.9
(6.7)
M H2; acetate; pyruvate; propionate; butyrate; various fatty acids SO4(2-); SO3(2-); S2O3(2-) Biotin required as growth factor Nilsen et al. (1996)
C, chemolithoautotroph; O, organotroph; M, mixotroph; nd, not determined